Importancia del espacio vital en la respuesta productiva y bienestar del ganado bovino productor de carne en confinamiento

Ana Romo-Valdez, Cristina Pérez-Linares, Francisco Ríos-Rincón, Fernando Figueroa-Saavedra, Alberto Barreras-Serrano, Isabel Castro-Pérez

Resumen

En el sistema de producción intensiva de carne bovina, el espacio vital asignado en el corral de engorda es fundamental para que los bovinos manifiesten su comportamiento natural, establezcan un orden jerárquico y expresen su potencial productivo. Si en el corral de engorda disminuye el espacio vital también se reduce el área disponible de sombra y comedero, se comprometen los indicadores productivos y se modifica el comportamiento del ganado, al incrementar la conducta agonista para definir las jerarquías dentro del corral. Para la asignación de espacio vital se necesitan considerar las condiciones climáticas de cada región, especialmente en áreas con mayor precipitación pluvial o de elevada temperatura ambiental y humedad relativa; por una parte, el exceso de lodo genera problemas en las extremidades, dificulta el desplazamiento de los bovinos dentro del corral y disminuye la conversión alimenticia, al disponer de mayor gasto energético para facilitar el desplazamiento. Al aumentar el espacio vital en el corral mejora el bienestar de los bovinos, disminuye la morbilidad y aumenta la ganancia de peso. Es por ello importante considerar el entorno medioambiental y las características físicas de los corrales para proveer condiciones óptimas de alojamiento.

Palabras clave

espacio vital; bovinos; producción intensiva

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Referencias

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