Coccidiosis en pollos de engorda comerciales en Brazil entre 2012 y 2019: especies principales y grados de daño

Fabio Gazoni, Fabrizio Matte, Felipe Chiarelli-Adorno, Antonise Mariely-Jaguezeski, Guillermo Tellez-Isaias, Aleksandro Schafer-da-Silva

Resumen

El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de la coccidiosis en pollos de engorde, detectar las especies más comunes de Eimeria spp y cargas parasitarias en aves comerciales en Brasil de 2012 a 2019. Estudiamos 13,648 aves entre 9 y 49 días de edad en 82 empresas en 13 estados brasileños. Las aves se seleccionaron al azar (3 a 6 aves / aviario) y se sacrificaron por eutanasia. Se analizaron las lesiones macroscópicas y se raspó la mucosa intestinal para el conteo de ooquistes de E. maxima. La clasificación de especies se basó en el tamaño de los ooquistes. También cuantificamos la carga infecciosa mediante un sistema de puntuación. Se detectó coccidiosis subclínica (E. maxima micro) en un promedio de 34.8%. E. acervulina (16.1%), E. maxima (7.9%) y E. tenella (4.1%) también se identificaron con fluctuaciones anuales. El conteo de ooquistes estuvo dentro de la puntuación 1 (1 a 10 ooquistes / ave) en el 47.5 al 84.4% de los casos; seguido de una puntuación 2 (11 a 20), 3 (21 a 40) y 4 (más de 41 ooquistes / ave). La coccidiosis subclínica es motivo de preocupación, ya que 3.5 de cada diez aves estaban infectadas. Este es un factor responsable del menor rendimiento productivo de los pollos de engorde.

Palabras clave

coccidiosis; Eimeria acervulina; Eimeria maxima; Eimeria tenella; prevalencia

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias

ABDUL RASHEED MS, Matsler PL. 2020. Assessment of protection against Eimeria tenella in broiler breeders conferred by a live anticoccidial vaccine and effects of vaccination on early pullet growth. Journal Applied of Poultry Research. 29(2):447-454. ISSN: 1056-6171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japr.2020.02.002

ADHIKARI P, Kiess A, Adhikari R, Jha R. 2020. An approach to alternative strategies to control avian coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis. Journal Applied of Poultry Research. 29(2):515-534. ISSN: 1056-6171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japr.2019.11.005

BORTOLUZZI C, Fernandes JIM, Doranalli K, Applegate TJ. 2019. Effects of dietary amino acids in ameliorating intestinal function during enteric challenges in broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 262:114383. ISSN: 0377-8401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.114383

CHAPMAN HD, Jeffers TK. 2014. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 4(3):214-217. ISSN: 0020-7519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpddr.2014.10.002

CHAPMAN HD, Barta JR, Hafeez MA, Matsler P, Rathinam T, Raccoursier M. 2016. The epizootiology of Eimeria infections in commercial broiler chickens where anticoccidial drug programs were employed in six successive flocks to control coccidiosis. Poultry Science. 95(8):1774-1778. ISSN: 0032-5791. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew091

CLARK EL, Macdonald SE, Thenmozhi V, Kundu K, Garg G, Kumar S, Nolan MJ, Sudhakar NR, Adebambo AO, Lawal IA, Álvarez Zapata R, Awuni JA, Chapman HD, Karimuribo E, Mugasa CM, Namangala B, Rushton J, Sao X, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Srinivasa Rao AS, Tewari AK, Banerjee PS, Raj GD, Raman M, Tomley FM, Blake DP. 2016. Cryptic Eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere. International Journal for Parasitology. 46(9):537-544. ISSN: 0020-7519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2016.05.006

DALLOUL RA, Lillehoj HS. 2006. Poultry coccidiosis: recent advancements in control measures and vaccine development. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2006(5):143-163. ISSN: 1476-0584. https://doi.org/10.1586/14760584.5.1.143

GAZONI FL, Adorno FC, Matte F, Malta T, Felin MR, Urbano T, Zampar A, Hernandez-Velasco X, Tellez G. 2017. Study of the correlation between intestinal health and prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens of brazilian agribusinesses between the years 2015 and 2016. International Journal of Poultry Science. 16(10):381-386. ISSN: 1682-8356. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2017.381.386

GAZONI FL, Adorno FC, Matte F, Alves AJ, Campagnoni IDP, Urbano T, da Silva AS. 2020. Correlation between intestinal health and coccidiosis prevalence in broilers in Brazilian agroindustries. Parasitology International. 76:102027. ISSN: 1383-5769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2019.102027

GYÖRKE A, Kalmár Z, Pop, LM, Şuteu OL. 2016. The economic impact of infection with Eimeria spp. in broiler farms from Romania. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 45(5):273-280. ISSN: 1806-9290. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000500010

JOHNSON J, Reid WM. 1970. Anticoccidial Drugs: lesion scoring techniques in battery and floor-pen experiments with chickens. Experimental Parasitology. 28:30-36. ISSN: 0014-4894. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4894(70)90063-9

KIM E, Leung H, Akhtar N, Li J, Barta JR, Wang Y, Kiarie E. 2017. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria. Poultry Science. 96(10):3676-3686. ISSN: 0032-5791. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex192

LAN LH, Sun B.B., Zuo BXZ, Chen XQ, Du AF. 2017. Prevalence and drug resistance of avian Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of Zhejiang province, China. Poultry Science. 96(7):2104-2109. ISSN: 0032-5791. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew499

LONG PL, Joyner LP. 1984. Problems in the identification of species of Eimeria. The Journal of Protozoology. 31(4):535-541. ISSN:1550-7408. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1984.tb05498.x

LU Z, Thanabalan A, Leung H, Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki R, Patterson R, Kiarie EG. 2019. The effects of feeding yeast bioactives to broiler breeders and/or their offspring on growth performance, gut development, and immune function in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria. Poultry Science. 98(12):6411-6421. ISSN: 0032-5791. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez479

MCDOUGALD LR. 2008. “Protozoal infections”. In: Saif YM, Fadly AM, Glisson JR, McDougald LR, Nolan LK, Swayne DE. Editors. Diseases of Poultry. 12th ed. Ames, Iowa, Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 1067. ISBN-13:978-0-8138-0718-8

MORAES JC, França M, Sartor AA, Bellato V, de Moura AB, Magalhães MDLB, Miletti LC. 2015. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in broilers by multiplex PCR in the southern region of Brazil on two hundred and fifty farms. Avian Diseases. 59(2):277-281. ISSN: 0005-2086. https://doi.org/10.1637/10989-112014-Reg

MORRIS GM, Gasser RB. 2006. Biotechnological advances in the diagnosis of avian coccidiosis and the analysis of genetic variation in Eimeria. Biotechnology Advances. 24(6):590-603. ISSN: 0734-9750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2006.06.001

OJIMELUKWE AE, Emedhem DE, Agu GO, Nduka FO, Abah AE. 2018. Populations of Eimeria tenella express resistance to commonly used anticoccidial drugs in southern Nigeria. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 6(2):192-200. ISSN: 2314-4599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2018.06.003

PAIVA D, McElroy A. 2014. Necrotic enteritis: applications for the poultry industry. Journal Applied of Poultry Research. 23:557-566. ISSN: 1056-6171. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2013-00925

PARK I, Lee Y, Goo D, Zimmerman NP, Smith AH, Rehberger T, Lillehoj HS. 2020. The effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis supplementation, as an alternative to antibiotics, on growth performance, intestinal immunity, and epithelial barrier integrity in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria maxima. Poultry Science. 99(2):725-733. ISSN: 0032-5791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.12.002

PRAKASHBABU BC, Thenmozhi V, Limon G, Kundu K, Kumar S, Garg R, Banerjee PS, Clark EL, Srinivasa Rao ASR, Raj DG, Raman M, Banerjee PS, Tomley FM, Guitian J, Blake DP. 2017. Eimeria species occurrence varies between geographic regions and poultry production systems and may influence parasite genetic diversity. Veterinary Parasitology. 233:62-72. ISSN: 1873-2550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.12.003

SHIVARAMAIAH C, Barta RJ, Hernandez-Velasco X, Tellez G, Hargis BM. 2014. Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites. Veterinary Medicine. 5:23-34. ISSN: 2230-2034. https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S57839

SOKALE AO, Williams CJ, Triplett MD, Hoerr FJ, Peebles ED. 2020. Effects of stage of broiler embryo development on coccidiosis vaccine injection accuracy, and subsequent oocyst localization and hatchling quality. Poultry Science. 99(1):189-195. ISSN: 0032-5791. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez592

TEETER RG, Beker A, Brown C, Broussard C, Fitz-Coy S, Radu J, Newman L. (2008). Transforming coccidiosis-mediated lesion scores into production and calorific cost. Proc. 23rd World Poult. Congr., Brisbane, Australia. 29.06.2008-04.07.2008. Pp.18-21. https://wenku.baidu.com/view/9df3d94fe45c3b3567ec8ba4.html

TOLEDO GA, Almeida JDDM, Almeida KDS, Freitas FLDC. 2011. Coccidiosis in broiler chickens raised in the Araguaína region, State of Tocantins, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria. 20(3):249-252. ISSN 0103-846X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612011000300014

VELKERS FC, Blake DP, Graat EAM, Vernooij JCM, Bouma A, De Jong MCM Stegeman JA. 2010. Quantification of Eimeria acervulina in faeces of broilers: Comparison of McMaster oocyst counts from 24 h faecal collections and single droppings to real-time PCR from cloacal swabs. Veterinary Parasitology. 169(1-2):1-7. ISSN: 0304-4017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.01.001

VETANCO do Brasil. 2011. Programa de Saúde Intestinal. Padrão microscópio de escore para E. maxima. Pp. 20 -21. https://www.vetanco.com/br/publicacoes-tecnicas/

WILLIAMS RB. 2005. Intercurrent coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis of chickens: rational, integrated disease management by maintenance of gut integrity. Avian Pathology. 34(3):159-180. ISSN: 0307-9457.

https://doi.org/10.1080/03079450500112195

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.