Semioquímicos asociados al seguimiento de rastros de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): una revisión sistemática


Palabras clave:

Cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas, electroantenografía, glándulas, bioensayo, sendero


Las hormigas son himenópteros muy diversos y de amplia distribución geográfica. Son insectos sociales y su comunicación se basa en señales químicas. Dentro del grupo de semioquímicos que regulan la búsqueda de alimentos están las feromonas de rastro en los caminos. El propósito de esta revisión es documentar las principales feromonas de seguimiento en los senderos que guían a las hormigas hacia las fuentes de alimentación. Se realizó una revisión sistemática basada en las directrices de la declaratoria PRISMA de las investigaciones encontradas en PubMed, Web of Science y Google Scholar de las feromonas de rastro. Se reportaron 26 compuestos químicos de 14 especies de hormigas, las principales fuentes de obtención fueron extractos de cuerpo completo, abdomen y glándulas. La detección de los semioquímicos fueron respuestas electrofisiológicas de los himenópteros y métodos cromatográficos, registrando compuestos orgánicos de cadena corta y larga (C05-C18). El estudio de compuestos químicos de rastro se ha realizado a un número reducido de especies, este tipo de investigaciones tiene gran potencial para el control de hormigas invasoras, ya que su distribución ha tenido repercusiones negativas en los ecosistemas y daños económicos para el hombre.



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