Identificación bioquímica de bacterias potencialmente patógenas y zoonóticas en las tortugas negras (Chelonia mydas) del Pacífico mexicano

Eduardo Reséndiz, Helena Fernández-Sanz

Resumen

Las tortugas marinas poseen naturalmente microbiota gastrointestinal, sin embargo, también se ha reportado el comportamiento oportunista y patogenicidad de algunas bacterias en estas especies. Por lo tanto, es importante generar información sobre los posibles riesgos para las tortugas y la salud humana. Se realizaron cinco monitoreos mensuales con capturas de Chelonia mydas en el complejo lagunar Ojo de Liebre. Se les practicaron exámenes físicos y se registraron sus morfometrías y se calculó su índice de condición corporal; se realizaron hisopados orales y cloacales que se sembraron en medios McConkey y TCBS. Los agentes bacterianos se aislaron e identificaron mediante el sistema API®20E. Se calcularon los porcentajes de abundancia y prevalencia de cada microorganismo. Finalmente, se determinó la relación entre la talla de las tortugas y la presencia de los microorganismos. Se capturaron 178 Chelonia mydas, se obtuvieron 523 aislamientos de enterobacterias gramnegativas de siete especies diferentes; la presencia de proteobacterias en Chelonia mydas no se relacionó con su clase de edad. Dentro de los microorganismos encontrados, Vibrio fluvialis y Burkholderia cepacia son zoonóticos. Estos estudios permiten comprender el papel de los microorganismos en las enfermedades de las poblaciones silvestres y los riesgos para la salud pública asociados a su consumo ilegal.

Palabras clave

Bacteriología; Microbiota; Tortugas marinas; Amenazas potenciales para la salud; Patógenos; Zoonosis

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Referencias

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