Efecto de la temperatura de extrusión, humedad y contenido del aceite de girasol sobre las propiedades funcionales y digestibilidad de alimentos para ganado bovino

Efren Delgado, Óscar Alvarado-González, Hiram Medrano-Roldán, Jesús Rodríguez-Miranda, Francisco Carrete-Carreón, Damián Reyes-Jáquez

Resumen

La preparación de productos extruidos con alto contenido de aceite presenta un desafío tecnológico, debido a que el aceite disminuye la fuerza mecánica específica pero también actúa como lubricante y forma complejos de almidón y lípidos; disminuyendo así la gelatinización del almidón. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la temperatura, la humedad y el contenido de aceite de girasol en el proceso de extrusión de alimento para ganado bovino. Se usaron dos ingredientes principales para cada dieta: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) y frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la alta temperatura, la humedad y el contenido de aceite, disminuyeron la densidad aparente y la dureza (P < 0.05). La interacción entre el contenido de aceite y la temperatura aumentó tanto la densidad aparente como la dureza, mientras que la interacción entre el contenido de humedad y aceite aumentó la dureza (P < 0.05). La optimización se realizó con base en las características fisicoquímicas de alimentos comerciales, mostrando que las mejores dietas de frijol se obtuvieron a 121ºC, 14% de contenido de humedad con 0% de aceite de girasol; 120ºC y 16% de contenido de humedad con 3.5% de aceite de girasol; y, 142ºC y 15% de contenido de humedad con 7% de aceite de girasol. La degradabilidad efectiva varió de 87.4 a 90.4% para todas las dietas extruidas; y ninguno de ellos mostró diferencias significativas entre el frijol y la alfalfa (P < 0.05), lo que abre una gran oportunidad potencial de producir altas concentraciones de CLA a partir del aceite de girasol a nivel ruminal.

Palabras clave

alimento para ganado bovino; digestibilidad; aceite de girasol

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