Aprovechamiento de desechos de pescado y cáscara de piña para producir ensilado biológico

José Ramírez-Ramírez, José Loya-Olguín, José Ulloa, Petra Rosas-Ulloa, Ranferi Gutiérrez-Leyva, Yessica Silva-Carrillo

Resumen

Se formularon seis tratamientos para elaborar ensilado biológico con desechos de pescado, rastrojo de maíz, melaza, cáscara de piña (CP) [15, 30 y 45%] e inóculo Lactobacillus sp. o Lactobacillus B2. Los ensilados de cada tratamiento se hicieron por triplicado y se incubaron a 30°C durante 0, 2, 4, 7 y 14 días con el propósito de evaluar la acidificación bajo un diseño factorial 3 x 2 x 5. A los ensilados se les determinó la composición química y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS) al terminar la fermentación. La acidificación más alta (p<0.05) la presentaron los tratamientos con CP 15 y 30% y Lactobacillus B2 a los 7 días. Con 15% de CP se obtuvo el mayor contenido de materia seca (39.3%) (p<0.05) y la proteína cruda (26.5 a 31%, rango) fue igual (p>0.05). La concentración mayor de lípidos (9.85%) se presentó en los tratamientos con CP 30 y 45% y Lactobacillus B2. Las fracciones de fibra detergente disminuyeron al aumentar el nivel de CP y la DIVMS más alta (82.9%) se presentó en los ensilados al utilizar Lactobacillus B2, independientemente del nivel de CP (p<0.05). Los ensilados obtenidos son una alternativa para alimentación de rumiantes.

Palabras clave

desechos de pescado; cáscara de piña; ensilado biológico; alimentación de rumiantes

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